In this article we offer you a unique immersion into everything related to the Eiffel Tower at nighttime: lighting, image rights, tour experience, and more. [17] The task of drawing the components was complicated by the complex angles involved in the design and the degree of precision required: the position of rivet holes was specified to within 1 mm (0.04 in) and angles worked out to one second of arc. At the bottom of the run, the chains passed around 3.9 m (12 ft 10 in) diameter sprockets. It came to a head as work began at the Champ de Mars: a "Committee of Three Hundred" (one member for each metre of the tower's height) was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most important figures of the arts, such as William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet. SETE (Société d’Exploitation de la tour Eiffel - The Eiffel Tower Operator) is a local public company. It was the first structure to reach a height of 300 m. Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres (17 ft). Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift to the first and second levels. The critical stage of joining the legs at the first level was completed by the end of March 1888. [64], The Eiffel Tower sways by up to 9 cm (3.5 in) in the wind. [55] The tower has operated at its maximum capacity of about 7 million visitors since 2003. [63], He used graphical methods to determine the strength of the tower and empirical evidence to account for the effects of wind, rather than a mathematical formula. [75] The tower itself is located at the intersection of the quai Branly and the Pont d'Iéna. Robert Moriarty flew a Beechcraft Bonanza under the tower on 31 March 1984. On the second level, the French newspaper Le Figaro had an office and a printing press, where a special souvenir edition, Le Figaro de la Tour, was made. [3] The Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world; 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015. Until the 1950s, sets of aerial wires ran from the cupola to anchors on the Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars. From 1937 until 1981, there was a restaurant near the top of the tower. Each shoe was anchored to the stonework by a pair of bolts 10 cm (4 in) in diameter and 7.5 m (25 ft) long. … Now to what phenomenon did I have to give primary concern in designing the Tower? 99% is owned by the City of Paris, with the remaining 1% being owned by the Métropole du Grand Paris. [citation needed], Maintenance of the tower includes applying 60 tons of paint every seven years to prevent it from rusting. In all, 18,038 pieces were joined together using 2.5 million rivets. [93] SNTE made over €1 million from copyright fees in 2002. The new version gained Eiffel's support: he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin, Nougier, and Sauvestre had taken out, and the design was exhibited at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of 1884 under the company name. [77] An average of 25,000 people ascend the tower every day which can result in long queues.[78]. [73] In reality, since zoning restrictions limit the height of most buildings in Paris to seven storeys, only a small number of tall buildings have a clear view of the tower. This reservoir also provided power to the lifts to the first level. 1 Quai de Grenelle, [23] Otis were confident they would eventually be given the contract and had already started creating designs. In 1910, Father Theodor Wulf measured radiant energy at the top and bottom of the tower. Because the mechanism requires frequent lubrication and maintenance, public access is often restricted. [48] A service lift was added to the south pillar for moving small loads and maintenance personnel three years later. Welcome to the Eiffel Tower official page! The Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world; 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015. [48], According to interviews, in 1967, Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau negotiated a secret agreement with Charles de Gaulle for the tower to be dismantled and temporarily relocated to Montreal to serve as a landmark and tourist attraction during Expo 67. It was removed due to structural considerations; engineers had determined it was too heavy and was causing the tower to sag. Two searchlights mounted on a circular rail were used to illuminate various buildings of the exposition. Given the elasticity of the cables and the time taken to align the cars with the landings, each lift, in normal service, takes an average of 8 minutes and 50 seconds to do the round trip, spending an average of 1 minute and 15 seconds at each level. The new cars operate in pairs, with one counterbalancing the other, and perform the journey in one stage, reducing the journey time from eight minutes to less than two minutes. No drilling or shaping was done on site: if any part did not fit, it was sent back to the factory for alteration. When the Allies were nearing Paris in August 1944, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, to demolish the tower along with the rest of the city. [57] A glass floor was installed on the first level during the 2014 refurbishment. It was envisioned after discussion about a suitable centrepiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle, a world's fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution. Smaller sprockets at the top guided the chains.[22]. [35] In April 1935, the tower was used to make experimental low-resolution television transmissions, using a shortwave transmitter of 200 watts power. [67], In May 2016, an apartment was created on the first level to accommodate four competition winners during the UEFA Euro 2016 football tournament in Paris in June. A Torre Eiffel (em francês: Tour Eiffel, /tuʀ ɛf ɛ l/) é uma torre treliça de ferro do século XIX localizada no Champ de Mars, em Paris, a qual se tornou um ícone mundial da França. The original lift in the south pillar was removed 13 years later. Lead paint was still being used as recently as 2001 when the practice was stopped out of concern for the environment.[54][74]. This was signed by Eiffel acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, and granted him 1.5 million francs toward the construction costs: less than a quarter of the estimated 6.5 million francs. External policy for personal data protection. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. On 17 November, an improved 180-line transmitter was installed. A torre, que é o edifício mais alto da cidade, é o monumento pago mais visitado do mundo, com milhões de pessoas frequentando-o … After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887. After being exhausted from the cylinder, the water was pumped back up to the reservoir by two pumps in the machinery room at the base of the south leg. [25], There was still work to be done, particularly on the lifts and facilities, and the tower was not opened to the public until nine days after the opening of the exposition on 6 May; even then, the lifts had not been completed. Gustave Eiffel described some of the responses as vraiment curieuse ("truly curious").[28]. The daily opening and closing of the exposition were announced by a cannon at the top. [15] Those for the east and south legs were straightforward, with each leg resting on four 2 m (6.6 ft) concrete slabs, one for each of the principal girders of each leg. [12] Because the lifts were not yet in operation, the ascent was made by foot, and took over an hour, with Eiffel stopping frequently to explain various features. [citation needed], Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower the names of 72 French scientists, engineers and mathematicians in recognition of their contributions to the building of the tower. O brinquedo 'La Tour Eiffel', conhecido como elevador está fechado desde fevereiro de 2012, quando a adolescente Gabriela Nichimura, de 14 anos, sofreu uma queda do aparelho e morreu em consequência dos ferimentos. This is "SETE / Tour Eiffel - Instants partagés sur la tour Eiffel" by Quentin Lefaure on Vimeo, the home for high quality videos and the people who love… [42] In 1940, German soldiers had to climb the tower to hoist a swastika-centered Reichskriegsflagge,[43] but the flag was so large it blew away just a few hours later, and was replaced by a smaller one. The plan was allegedly vetoed by the company operating the tower out of fear that the French government could refuse permission for the tower to be restored in its original location.[49]. [90] As a result, the SNTE alleges that it is illegal to publish contemporary photographs of the lit tower at night without permission in France and some other countries for commercial use. 01 44 11 23 46, Email : [38] A bust of Gustave Eiffel by Antoine Bourdelle was unveiled at the base of the north leg on 2 May 1929. No French company wanted to undertake the work. [29] Edison signed the guestbook with this message: To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modern Engineering from one who has the greatest respect and admiration for all Engineers including the Great Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison. The Société d’Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel operates, maintains, and runs events at the Eiffel Tower as part of a delegated public service contract with the City of Paris. SETE - Société d'Exploitation de la tour Eiffel | 1.309 seguidores no LinkedIn. A television antenna was first installed on the tower in 1957, increasing its height by 18.7 m (61.4 ft). The object of the transmissions was to measure the difference in longitude between Paris and Washington, D.C..[87] Today, radio and digital television signals are transmitted from the Eiffel Tower. [3] In 2015, there were 6.91 million visitors. The west and north legs, being closer to the river Seine, were more complicated: each slab needed two piles installed by using compressed-air caissons 15 m (49 ft) long and 6 m (20 ft) in diameter driven to a depth of 22 m (72 ft)[16] to support the concrete slabs, which were 6 m (20 ft) thick. [64] All parts of the tower were over-designed to ensure maximum resistance to wind forces. On 20 November 1913, the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an aerial, exchanged wireless signals with the United States Naval Observatory, which used an aerial in Arlington, Virginia. La SETE a pour objectif entretenir et exploiter la Tour Eiffel. [40] In 1938, the decorative arcade around the first level was removed. [56] In 2004, the Eiffel Tower began hosting a seasonal ice rink on the first level. It opened in 1894 and is 158.1 m (518 ft) tall. The sparkly lighting continued for 18 months until July 2001. He later established a separate company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself.[7]. The car was pushed up from below, not pulled up from above: to prevent the chain buckling, it was enclosed in a conduit. On 30 March 1885, Eiffel presented his plans to the Société des Ingénieurs Civils; after discussing the technical problems and emphasising the practical uses of the tower, he finished his talk by saying the tower would symbolise: .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, [n]ot only the art of the modern engineer, but also the century of Industrand Science in which we are living, and for which the way was prepared by the great scientific movement of the eighteenth century and by the Revolution of 1789, to which this monument will be built as an expression of France's gratitude.[6]. Notamment de moderniser les installations, les espaces d'accueil et les services offerts aux visiteurs, tout en respectant une démarche de développement durable et en maintenant un haut niveau de sécurité. Welcome to the Eiffel Tower official page! ", "Do night photos of the Eiffel Tower violate copyright? This information will be kept on file as long as necessary to respond to your request. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order. The car was divided into two superimposed compartments, each holding 25 passengers, with the lift operator occupying an exterior platform on the first level. He found more at the top than expected, incidentally discovering what are known today as cosmic rays. Eiffel openly acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853. The design of the Eiffel Tower is attributed to Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel. Eiffel was similarly unworried, pointing out to a journalist that it was premature to judge the effect of the tower solely on the basis of the drawings, that the Champ de Mars was distant enough from the monuments mentioned in the protest for there to be little risk of the tower overwhelming them, and putting the aesthetic argument for the tower: "Do not the laws of natural forces always conform to the secret laws of harmony? The tower and its image have been in the public domain since 1993, 70 years after Eiffel's death. [12] Guy de Maupassant supposedly ate lunch in the tower's restaurant every day because it was the one place in Paris where the tower was not visible.[13]. Close examination of the tower reveals a basically exponential shape. [34] From 1925 to 1934, illuminated signs for Citroën adorned three of the tower's sides, making it the tallest advertising space in the world at the time. These were connected to longwave transmitters in small bunkers. [79] Starting May 2019, it will be managed by three star chef Frédéric Anton. [70] It was originally reddish brown; this changed in 1968 to a bronze colour known as "Eiffel Tower Brown". The Court of Cassation, France's judicial court of last resort, upheld the ruling in March 1992. The tower is 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building, and the tallest structure in Paris. Cloud to the Eiffel Tower and back in less than half an hour. [51] On 27 October 1991, Thierry Devaux, along with mountain guide Hervé Calvayrac, performed a series of acrobatic figures while bungee jumping from the second floor of the tower. At the top, there were laboratories for various experiments, and a small apartment reserved for Gustave Eiffel to entertain guests, which is now open to the public, complete with period decorations and lifelike mannequins of Eiffel and some of his notable guests. The layout of both first and second levels was modified, with the space available for visitors on the second level. Dusk transforms the Eiffel Tower! Failure to respond to these fields will make it impossible to process your application. La tour Eiffel 5 avenue Anatole France - Champ de Mars - 75007 Paris. [84], There are various scale models of the tower in the United States, including a half-scale version at the Paris Las Vegas, Nevada, one in Paris, Texas built in 1993, and two 1:3 scale models at Kings Island, located in Mason, Ohio, and Kings Dominion, Virginia, amusement parks opened in 1972 and 1975 respectively. [email protected], A website owned by Sociéte d'Exploitation de la tour Eiffel. [15] Although the metalwork had been prepared with the utmost attention to detail, provision had been made to carry out small adjustments in order to precisely align the legs; hydraulic jacks were fitted to the shoes at the base of each leg, capable of exerting a force of 800 tonnes, and the legs were intentionally constructed at a slightly steeper angle than necessary, being supported by sandboxes on the scaffold. After dark, the tower was lit by hundreds of gas lamps, and a beacon sent out three beams of red, white and blue light. Bienvenue sur la page officielle de la tour Eiffel ! [52], For its "Countdown to the Year 2000" celebration on 31 December 1999, flashing lights and high-powered searchlights were installed on the tower. [46] In 1964, the Eiffel Tower was officially declared to be a historical monument by the Minister of Cultural Affairs, André Malraux. The tower has two restaurants: Le 58 Tour Eiffel on the first level, and Le Jules Verne, a gourmet restaurant with its own lift on the second level. Email : communication@toureiffel.paris. Tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France, This article is about the landmark in Paris, France. Phone : 01 44 11 23 46. It was to be dismantled in 1909, when its ownership would revert to the City of Paris. No primeiro andar, além do restaurante 58 Tour Eiffel, está uma pequena exposição sobre a história de Gustava Eiffel e da própria torre. In 1982, the original lifts between the second and third levels were replaced after 97 years in service. Each of these slabs supported a block of limestone with an inclined top to bear a supporting shoe for the ironwork. Work on the foundations started on 28 January 1887. It was wind resistance. At 2:35 pm, Eiffel hoisted a large Tricolour to the accompaniment of a 25-gun salute fired at the first level. During the last three minutes of the year, the lights were turned on starting from the base of the tower and continuing to the top to welcome 2000 with a huge fireworks show. One week after the Eiffel Tower’s reopening, the West elevator renewed its operation today, carrying visitors up to the 2nd floor. Facing the Champ de Mars, Devaux used an electric winch between figures to go back up to the second floor. When it was built, many were shocked by the tower's daring form. Hotéis perto de Theatre de la Tour Eiffel: Stylish flat with views on the Eiffel tower (0.06 km) Hotel de Londres Eiffel (0.08 km) Le Derby Alma (0.19 km) Hotel de la Paix Tour Eiffel (0.25 km) Hotel de la Tour Eiffel (0.18 km) Veja todos os hotéis perto de Theatre de la Tour Eiffel no Tripadvisor The original hydraulic mechanism is on public display in a small museum at the base of the east and west legs. [37] A year later, in February 1926, pilot Leon Collet was killed trying to fly under the tower. Its board of directors is chaired by Jean-François Martins, Councillor of the City of Paris. No topo da Torre Eiffel há um bar que serve champanhe, enquanto que no segundo andar fica o estrelado (e caríssimo) restaurante Jules Verne. Most of the party chose to stop at the lower levels, but a few, including the structural engineer, Émile Nouguier, the head of construction, Jean Compagnon, the President of the City Council, and reporters from Le Figaro and Le Monde Illustré, completed the ascent. Two 1:3 scale models can be found in China, one in Durango, Mexico that was donated by the local French community, and several across Europe.[85]. Contact information. Hôtel de la Tour Eiffel aceita estes cartões e reserva-se o direito de reter um valor temporariamente no seu cartão antes da chegada. [45] On 25 June, before the Germans had been driven out of Paris, the German flag was replaced with a Tricolour by two men from the French Naval Museum, who narrowly beat three men led by Lucien Sarniguet, who had lowered the Tricolour on 13 June 1940 when Paris fell to the Germans. [41], Upon the German occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French. The motive power was moved from the water hydraulic system to a new electrically driven oil-filled hydraulic system, and the original water hydraulics were retained solely as a counterbalance system. They made use of the guides for the lifts which were to be fitted in the four legs. Well then! At the beginning of the 20th century, the engravings were painted over, but they were restored in 1986–87 by the Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company operating the tower. The 10-ton cars each held 65 passengers. For other uses, see, "300-metre tower" and "Tour Eiffel" redirect here. Therefore, SETE may be unable to claim copyright on photographs of Paris which happen to include the lit tower. SETE significa Société d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel. In an interview with the newspaper Le Temps published on 14 February 1887, Eiffel said: Is it not true that the very conditions which give strength also conform to the hidden rules of harmony?